Jul 9, 2008

this site was esablished by final year biology group faculty of agriculture university of jaffna

Jun 30, 2008


The '''Jaffna Peninsula''' is an area in Northern [[Sri Lanka]], underground [[water]] is used for drinking, agricultural and industry. [[Paddy field|Paddy]] cultivation is rain fed but only for three months during the North East monsoon period. It is a part of the peninsula consisting of fourteen D.S Administrative Divisions. The total land area including inland water is 1,030 km². The terrain of the region is almost flat and of low elevation except in the central part of the western sector in the area around [[Tellippalai]], where the elevation rises to 10.5 m above sea level. From there it slopes gently towards the south and south east, while to the north the elevation tends to drop abruptly.
[[Image:Jaffna district.svg|thumb|The relatively small (15 x 40 miles) [[Jaffna Peninsula]] in pink with [[Islands of Sri Lanka|adjoining islands]], as compared to rest of Sri Lanka]]
Climate and Soil
The climate of [[Jaffna]] region is considered to be Tropical monsoonal with a seasonal rhythm of rainfall. The temperature ranges from 26 C to 33 C. Annual precipitation ranges from 696 mm to 1125 mm. It is evenly spread over the area. The north east monsoon rain (October to January) accounts for more than 90 % of the annual rainfall. The Jaffna peninsula is divided into two agro-ecological regions.

The soil found in Jaffna belongs to the following three major soil groups:
* Calcic Red-yellow latosols.
* Solodized solonetz and solon chaks.
* Regosols.

Water Resource

Water is extracted from open dug wells for domestic and agricultural purposes. Approximately 28,000 wells serve both domestic and agricultural purposes. Water available in these wells and its quality varies from place to place. In the majority of deep wells in the Valikamam division water is available for irrigation throughout the year. These wells are situated in the calcic red-yellow latosols and their depth varies from 20 to 25 feet. The wells available in other areas are shallow (10 to 15 ft).

Socio Economic Condition

The total population of the district is around 600,000. Agriculture and fisheries have been the principal economic activities of the district. Over 60 % of the work force in the district depends on agriculture for their livelihood. About 86,000 families are engaged in agriculture while 15,000 families engage in fishing. Agriculture in the district contributes substantially to the GNP of the country. The land cultivated by 48 % of the farmers does not belong to them. The average land holding area is around 0.5 to 0.75 acres. Unemployment in the rural areas is 27.9 % while in the urban area it is 25.8 %.

Crop Production

The [[agriculture]] sector, including crop and livestock has contributed around 65 % of the total gross domestic product of the district. In terms of production, major cash crops like [[Chili pepper|chili]], [[onion]], [[tobacco]], [[potato]] and [[banana]] are produced in large extent to meet the substantial portion of the national requirement. Further [[fruit]] crops like [[mango]], [[Grapes]] and [[jack]] are also produced in large quantities.


Total [[Paddy field|paddy]] land available for the cultivation is 12,000 ha. Of which nearly 8000 ha (64.6 %) is being cultivated. About 2000 ha of paddy land is being identified as marginal due to the salinity problem. Paddy is cultivated as mono crop in 85 % of the paddy land and in the balance 15 % paddy is followed by [[vegetable]] and field crops with the help of available irrigation. The average yield is about 50 bushels per acre (2.5 mt/ha). However, 30 40 % of farmers who cultivate improved varieties are able to obtain yield of 70 bushels per acre (3.5 mt/ha).


Vegetables are being cultivated throughout the year with the help of irrigation from the dug wells. Low country vegetables such as [[brinjal]], [[tomato]], [[long bean]], [[okra]], [[snake gourd]], [[bitter gourd]] and other leafy vegetables are being cultivated and available throughout the year. Exotic vegetables like [[cabbage]], [[leeks]], [[beet]], [[beans]], and [[carrots]] are also cultivated in large extent.

Field crops

Among the other field crops, [[onion]], [[potato]], [[tobacco]], [[Chili pepper|chili]] and [banana]] are cultivated as cash crops because farmers obtain considerable income from these crops. Total extent of high land available for cultivation is 7,851 ha. Of which 1.642 ha (21 %) is unable to cultivate due to security reas on. At present field crops and vegetables are cultivated in 4200 ha with the help of left irrigation from the dug wells.

Perennial Crops

Perennial crops include the orchard crops like [[mango]], [[jack]], [grapes]] and [[citrus]] and other crops like [[palmyrah]] and [[coconut]]. Coconut is grown in home stead in the extent of 1470 ha. Other perennial crops are grown in 1500 ha. Further nearly 3.5 million palmarah palms are available in [[Jaffna]]. Farmers generate considerable income from fruit crops, like mango, jack, grapes etc cultivated in 1850 ha. Grapes were cultivated in 380 ha during 1985 is reduced to 55 ha in 2004.

Live Stock

The live stock sector is an important component of the farming system. Up to 1950, only local cattle and goats were reared for milk and meat, with the establishment of artificial insemination in 1950 exotic cross breeds such as Jersey and Indian breeds of cattle were introduced and high milk yield was obtained. Further Jamunapari and Sannan breeds of goats were also introduced for meat and milk. With this introduction of new breeds many farmers started rearing cross breeds of cattle, goat and poultry. From 1950 to 1984 live stock enterprise developed very fast and it was a single or supplementary source of income for nearly 30 % of the district population. Backyard poultry and rearing milking cows and goat for milk and meat generate additional income for the farmers. Live stock population reduced to a considerable extent during the last two decades due to the civil war.

Tsunami Disaster

Northern and Eastern coast of the peninsula were badly affected by tsunami, this includes the villages in the Northern cost from Thondaimanaru to Thumpalai and Eastern coast from [[Vallipuram]] to Kuddarappu. The damage to the eastern coast was higher than that of northern coast. Fisheries sectors of this district were badly affected. Estimation of damages caused to different sectors has not been completed.

Available data revealed that a total of 1,256 people lost their lives while 1,647 were injured and 1,204 are missing. 37,255 people belonging to 9,885 families were displaced, of which 15,034 people belonging to 4,038 families are living in the welfare camps and the balance 22,221 people belonging to 5,847 families are living with their friends and relatives.
People displaced from the coastal villages of [[Kankesanthurai]], Myliddy and [[Palali]] due to the formation heavy security zone were already settled in the above villages and are involved in fishing. Fisheries and agriculture sector in the above villages are affected badly.

Jun 27, 2008

GLOBAL FOOD CRISIS: You Can Help The Hungry

According to the International Monetary Fund, over the past 12 months global food prices have increased on average by more than 40%. Most experts believe that there is no single driver behind this unprecedented rise in the cost of foodstuffs, but rather that numerous factors threaten the food security and well being of millions of people, particularly the poorest of the poor in the developing world.

Factors cited by experts include: the increased demand for food commodities from developing countries (as a result of population increases and increased consumption of meat), the production of crops for bio-fuels, increased costs of transportation, fuel and fertilizer due to the increasing cost of oil, a weakening U.S. currency which increases the effective cost for commodities purchased with dollars, and recurring natural disasters such as drought and flooding.

However, despite this bleak outlook there is room for hope. Project Concern International is committed to taking a leadership role in identifying sustainable, pro-poor solutions to mitigate the terrible impacts of the growing food crisis for the most vulnerable populations where we work. Today PCI is:

Distributing food through our comprehensive school feeding programs including providing 100,000 school children in Nicaragua and Zambia with a daily meal;
Improving agricultural production, providing livestock and improving livelihoods for some of the most vulnerable families in Africa, Latin America, and Asia.
Assisting families, schools and communities to plant sustainable food gardens;
Helping nearly 8,000 child and female-headed households in Africa to receive monthly take-home rations to support orphans and vulnerable children;
Providing women and young children in Guatemala with a nutritious lentil / rice blend.
You can join us as we fight against this world hunger crisis by donating to our lifesaving work! Your support of $50, $100, $1000 whatever you feel you can contribute will be used to help save lives and assist thousands of people to enjoy healthier, more hopeful lives. Thank you for supporting our efforts with a financial contribution and, above all, thank you for your interest in helping to address this global challenge.

Abundant usage of pesticide in jaffna peninsula

Pesticide threat in jaffna

Age of organic farming - critical analysis

The term organic farming or organic product is not a new one to the Asian people. But the people’s interest to the organic products is gradually being increased, many survey remarks.

It may be just two or three decades ago, there was a great thought about green revolution. Actually what is green revolution? What are the causes to this phenomenon? Let see about some thing on this Para.
Though this term do not belong to Asian people, it is better to concern the Indian experiment for the easiness of this studies.

After the independence of India (at 1947) The government led by congress decided to the planned economic policy for the future movement of Indian economy.Sinjce the Russian experiment become success in the east and Neru, the first prime minister of independent India was greatly attracted by socialist approach of Russia, his government decided to march on socialist path way after the independence.

The 2 main sectors of economy are agriculture and corporate sector, we knew. At that time government put forward a planned economic policy which is able to satisfy the concept of self sufficiency. So that most of imports was restricted and they put forward a policy caller “alternate import policy”.
Though many fruitful effects of this policy was achieved ( for example, human resource development, corporate sector development and higher GDP growth( 8 time of British Indian GDP ) what main turning point is green revolution.

In agriculture traditional methods was being practiced for many centuries by underdeveloped countries. But due to the subsequent impacts of industrialization in Europe, tractors were introduced to ploughing. It is the first evolution in green revolution.

The green revolution is the successful gain by the collective impacts of following reasons.

1. The increasing trend of world population. It necessitates the production of stable food for huge mass.
2. Works become easy due to mechanization of agriculture. Large acreage was cultivated.
3. Invention of new hybrid seed varieties.
4. To use the agrochemicals.

Above mentioned inputs was introduced as package in certain fertile land of India and all land lords was insisted to invest and involve in food production at next years.

No one could deny the the boost of food grain production in India during green revolution. At following year’s excess grain storage increased and self sufficiency was achieved to a certain level. (But government could not curtail poverty level. it is a controversial issue. some criticize that excess grain in go down is due to depletion of purchasing power of rural people).

But now it is widely postulated that all the bright memories of green revolution has been finished and now the time for the analyzing the mistakes about what we did.

Why the success of green revolution was not being enjoyed by majority of people. Beyond the technical views, political and socials setbacks are answering to this critical questions. Actually it is a great issue but we tend to summarize all things in brief at following Para.

1. Indian government has failed to implement land reform in nationalwide.All the land lord was belonging to high caste and agro people are normally comes from many low caste. So the benefits of green revolution were exploited by small number of minorities. It is the major reason. If state would ensure the ownership of land to all people the benefits would be equalized and they would achieve equal growth without bias. As I mentioned in my former articles, socialism may not a enough condition to get development. But it is a necessary condition to ensure gradual growth and development.

2. The population growth reaches to maximum capacity of nation. It was another problem. As we study the economical and social pattern of many developed countries (USA, Singapore, Japan etc.) the low population and more natural resources led to high life standard. But whole Asian countries came down to implement strict family planning project in their home lands.
3. As far as Indian field works are concerned, green revolution was started based on ground water source not based on huge water tank. Nowadays many researches denunciate that most of the problems faced in sustainable water management is caused by this above mentioned situation.

4. Hazardous effect of the agrochemicals has been realized and pest and disease attack become more serious due to the development of new resistant strains.

Among the above mentioned reasons, 4th one is emphasizing us to move to organic farming in future.

Organic farming

The term actually refers that not using agrochemical in the farming or minimum usage at risk.
At the beginning of green revolution, all the policy makers put forward a policy to devastate the forest area and to increasing the cultivating acreage for maximum food production. This wrong practice leads to devastation of bio diversity. So that subsequent effects are obtained by rural community. Nowadays agro forestry and sustainable developments are often suggested to the safe of future generation.

World trend of consumer preference to organic products

Consumers from west now prefer the non chemical products than other parts do. It is due to the full awareness about their health and food security. As usual most of the west states have banned unwanted and dangerous agro chemicals that are still practiced in developing countries. This infers the mal organizing marketing system to these agro chemicals.

The consumer behavior on organic product in world- An over view.

Latin American farmers show higher interest to produce and market the organic farm product in large acreage. But it is not suited to Asian people. Because most of Asian farmers are fully lobbed by low price agro chemical companies and their behavior of farming is always profit oriented and not health and social oriented. This mentality is paramount set back that is restricting the evolution of sustainable agriculture in the areas. For example in Srilanka Jaffna region is typical example to this chemical oriented agriculture. What is the dangerous aspects is higher ground water pollution is observed in this region due to its dependency on ground water for agriculture.

But fortunately Latin American farmers show high interest in their safety of production. Some case studies are;
1. Brazil started organic cotton in 1993 when a group of small scale farmers in Taua in semi arid regions of they state of Ceara, decided to include it in their farming system. For ensuring ten years different textile companies tried to buy agro ecological cotton.( In this area referred to as cotton produced to organic standard but not normally certified as organic)

Despite of many challenges farmer were able to sell their product in small Brazilian organic market at prices up to 30% higher than for conventionally produced cotton.

Jun 23, 2008

this site was esablished by final year biology group faculty of agriculture university of jaffna
அசுத்த நீரால் 16 இலட்சம் பேர் இந்த வருடம் உயிரிழக்கும் அபாயம்

மக்கள் பருகும் குடிநீரை சுத்தமாக்குவதற்கு அரசாங்கங்கள் உரிய நடவடிக்கையை எடுக்கத் தவறினால், உலகில் இவ்வருடம் 16 இலட்சம் பேர் மரணமடைவர் என்று உலக சுகாதார ஸ்தாபனம் எச்சரித்திருக்கிறது.
நீர் தொடர்பான நோய்களால் தினமும் 4 ஆயிரத்திற்கும் அதிகமானோர் தினமும் உயிரிழந்து வருவதாக உலக சுகாதார ஸ்தாபனத்தின் நீர், சுகாதார நிகழ்ச்சித் திட்டத்தின் இணைப்பதிகாரி ஜேம்ஸ் பேர்ட்ரம் நேற்றுமுன் தினம் திங்கட்கிழமை விடுத்த அறிக்கையில் தெரிவித்துள்ளார். வளர்ந்து வரும் நாடுகளில் மட்டுமல்லாமல் சகல நாடுகளையுமே நீர் மாசுறுதல் பிரச்சினை மோசமாக பாதித்து வருகிறது.
அபிவிருத்தியடைந்த வளர்ச்சி குன்றிய நாடுகளையும் இந்தப் பிரச்சினை பாதித்துள்ளது என்று பேர்ட்ரம் கூறியுள்ளார்.
சிங்கப்பூரில் சர்வதேச நீர் வாரம் நேற்று செவ்வாய்க்கிழமை ஆரம்பமாகியுள்ளது.
காலநிலை மாற்றத்தாலும் நீருக்கான தேவை அதிகரித்திருப்பதாலும், தண்ணீர் தட்டுப்பாட்டை எதிர்நோக்குவது தொடர்பாக அரசாங்கங்கள் கவனம் செலுத்த வேண்டும் என்றும் அவர் தெரிவித்தார்.
200 கோடி மக்கள் அடிப்படை சுகாதார வசதிகளின்றி இருப்பதாக ஆசிய அபிவிருத்தி வங்கி கணிப்பிட்டுள்ளது.
நீருக்கான தேவை அதிகரிப்பானது தண்ணீருக்கு தட்டுப்பாடு நிலவும் நாடுகளில் தாங்கிக் கொள்ள முடியாத நிலைமையை ஏற்படுத்துமென ஐ.நா. சுற்றாடல் நிகழ்ச்சித் திட்டம் அறிக்கையில் எதிர்வு கூறியுள்ளது.
உப்புக்களை அகற்றுதல், விசேட வடி கட்டல் முறைமைகள் உட்பட புதிய தொழில்நுட்பத்தை கையாள வேண்டிய அவசியம் ஏற்பட்டுள்ளதாகவும், நீர் தொடர்பான உள்சார் கட்டமைப்பை ஏற்படுத்தி பராமரிக்க அதிகளவு முதலீடுகளை அரசாங்கங்கள் மேற்கொள்ள வேண்டிய தேவை இருப்பதாக பேர்ட்ரம் சுட்டிக் காட்டியுள்ளார்.
கடந்த வருடத்தில் முதல் தடவையாக உலகின் 600 கோடி மக்களில் 50 சதவீதமானோர் குழாய் மூலம் நீர் பெற்றுள்ளனர். ஆனால், இந்த நீர் பாதுகாப்பானதாக இல்லை என்று தெரிவிக்கப்பட்டுள்ளது.
தண்ணீர் தட்டுப்பாடு நிலவும் நாடுகள் சிங்கப்பூர் நீரைப் பயன்படுத்தும் விதத்தை முன்மாதிரியாக கொள்ள முடியுமென உலக சுகாதார ஸ்தாபனம் கருதுகிறது.

Thanks for Thinakural news paper